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R - Vectors

Vectors are the most basic R data objects and there are six types of atomic vectors. They are logical, integer, double, complex, character and raw.

Vector Creation

Single Element Vector

Even when you write just one value in R, it becomes a vector of length 1 and belongs to one of the above vector types.
# Atomic vector of type character.
print("abc");

# Atomic vector of type double.
print(12.5)

# Atomic vector of type integer.
print(63L)

# Atomic vector of type logical.
print(TRUE)

# Atomic vector of type complex.
print(2+3i)

# Atomic vector of type raw.
print(charToRaw('hello'))
When we execute the above code, it produces the following result −
[1] "abc"
[1] 12.5
[1] 63
[1] TRUE
[1] 2+3i
[1] 68 65 6c 6c 6f

Multiple Elements Vector

Using colon operator with numeric data
# Creating a sequence from 5 to 13.
v <- 5:13
print(v)

# Creating a sequence from 6.6 to 12.6.
v <- 6.6:12.6
print(v)

# If the final element specified does not belong to the sequence then it is discarded.
v <- 3.8:11.4
print(v)
When we execute the above code, it produces the following result −
[1]  5  6  7  8  9 10 11 12 13
[1]  6.6  7.6  8.6  9.6 10.6 11.6 12.6
[1]  3.8  4.8  5.8  6.8  7.8  8.8  9.8 10.8
Using sequence (Seq.) operator
# Create vector with elements from 5 to 9 incrementing by 0.4.
print(seq(5, 9, by = 0.4))
When we execute the above code, it produces the following result −
[1] 5.0 5.4 5.8 6.2 6.6 7.0 7.4 7.8 8.2 8.6 9.0
Using the c() function
The non-character values are coerced to character type if one of the elements is a character.
# The logical and numeric values are converted to characters.
s <- c('apple','red',5,TRUE)
print(s)
When we execute the above code, it produces the following result −
[1] "apple" "red"   "5"     "TRUE" 

Accessing Vector Elements

Elements of a Vector are accessed using indexing. The [ ] brackets are used for indexing. Indexing starts with position 1. Giving a negative value in the index drops that element from result.TRUE, FALSE or 0 and 1 can also be used for indexing.
# Accessing vector elements using position.
t <- c("Sun","Mon","Tue","Wed","Thurs","Fri","Sat")
u <- t[c(2,3,6)]
print(u)

# Accessing vector elements using logical indexing.
v <- t[c(TRUE,FALSE,FALSE,FALSE,FALSE,TRUE,FALSE)]
print(v)

# Accessing vector elements using negative indexing.
x <- t[c(-2,-5)]
print(x)

# Accessing vector elements using 0/1 indexing.
y <- t[c(0,0,0,0,0,0,1)]
print(y)
When we execute the above code, it produces the following result −
[1] "Mon" "Tue" "Fri"
[1] "Sun" "Fri"
[1] "Sun" "Tue" "Wed" "Fri" "Sat"
[1] "Sun"

Vector Manipulation

Vector arithmetic

Two vectors of same length can be added, subtracted, multiplied or divided giving the result as a vector output.
# Create two vectors.
v1 <- c(3,8,4,5,0,11)
v2 <- c(4,11,0,8,1,2)

# Vector addition.
add.result <- v1+v2
print(add.result)

# Vector substraction.
sub.result <- v1-v2
print(sub.result)

# Vector multiplication.
multi.result <- v1*v2
print(multi.result)

# Vector division.
divi.result <- v1/v2
print(divi.result)
When we execute the above code, it produces the following result −
[1]  7 19  4 13  1 13
[1] -1 -3  4 -3 -1  9
[1] 12 88  0 40  0 22
[1] 0.7500000 0.7272727       Inf 0.6250000 0.0000000 5.5000000

Vector element recycling

If we apply arithmetic operations to two vectors of unequal length, then the elements of the shorter vector are recycled to complete the operations.
v1 <- c(3,8,4,5,0,11)
v2 <- c(4,11)
# V2 becomes c(4,11,4,11,4,11)

add.result <- v1+v2
print(add.result)

sub.result <- v1-v2
print(sub.result)
When we execute the above code, it produces the following result −
[1]  7 19  8 16  4 22
[1] -1 -3  0 -6 -4  0

Vector Element Sorting

Elements in a vector can be sorted using the sort() function.
v <- c(3,8,4,5,0,11, -9, 304)

# Sort the elements of the vector.
sort.result <- sort(v)
print(sort.result)

# Sort the elements in the reverse order.
revsort.result <- sort(v, decreasing = TRUE)
print(revsort.result)

# Sorting character vectors.
v <- c("Red","Blue","yellow","violet")
sort.result <- sort(v)
print(sort.result)

# Sorting character vectors in reverse order.
revsort.result <- sort(v, decreasing = TRUE)
print(revsort.result)
When we execute the above code, it produces the following result −
[1]  -9   0   3   4   5   8  11 304
[1] 304  11   8   5   4   3   0  -9
[1] "Blue"   "Red"    "violet" "yellow"
[1] "yellow" "violet" "Red"    "Blue" 


Table of contents: 
1. R - Overview
2. R - Environment Setup
3. R - Basic Syntax
4. R - Data Types
5. R - Variables
6. R - Operators
7. R - Decision Making
8. R - Loops
9. R - Functions
10. R - Strings
11. R - Vectors
12. R - Matrices
13. R - Arrays
14. R - Factors
15. R - Data Frames
16. R - Packages
17. R - Data Reshaping
18. R - CSV Files
19. R - Excel Files
20. R - Binary Files
21. R - XML Files
22. R - JSON Files
23. R - Web Data
24. R - Database
25. R - Pie Charts
26. R - Bar Charts
27. R - Boxplots
28. R - Histograms
29. R - Line Graphs
30. R - Scatterplots
31. R - Mean, Median and Mode
32. R - Linear Regression
33. R - Multiple Regression
34. R - Logistic Regression
35. R - Normal Distribution
36. R - Binomial Distribution
37. R - Poisson Regression
38. R - Analysis of Covariance
39. R - Time Series Analysis
40. R - Nonlinear Least Square
41. R - Decision Tree
42. R - Random Forest
43. R - Survival Analysis
44. R - Chi Square Tests

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