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R - Arrays

Arrays are the R data objects which can store data in more than two dimensions. For example − If we create an array of dimension (2, 3, 4) then it creates 4 rectangular matrices each with 2 rows and 3 columns. Arrays can store only data type.
An array is created using the array() function. It takes vectors as input and uses the values in the dim parameter to create an array.

Example

The following example creates an array of two 3x3 matrices each with 3 rows and 3 columns.
# Create two vectors of different lengths.
vector1 <- c(5,9,3)
vector2 <- c(10,11,12,13,14,15)

# Take these vectors as input to the array.
result <- array(c(vector1,vector2),dim = c(3,3,2))
print(result)
When we execute the above code, it produces the following result −
, , 1

     [,1] [,2] [,3]
[1,]    5   10   13
[2,]    9   11   14
[3,]    3   12   15

, , 2

     [,1] [,2] [,3]
[1,]    5   10   13
[2,]    9   11   14
[3,]    3   12   15

Naming Columns and Rows

We can give names to the rows, columns and matrices in the array by using the dimnames parameter.
# Create two vectors of different lengths.
vector1 <- c(5,9,3)
vector2 <- c(10,11,12,13,14,15)
column.names <- c("COL1","COL2","COL3")
row.names <- c("ROW1","ROW2","ROW3")
matrix.names <- c("Matrix1","Matrix2")

# Take these vectors as input to the array.
result <- array(c(vector1,vector2),dim = c(3,3,2),dimnames = list(row.names,column.names,
   matrix.names))
print(result)
When we execute the above code, it produces the following result −
, , Matrix1

     COL1 COL2 COL3
ROW1    5   10   13
ROW2    9   11   14
ROW3    3   12   15

, , Matrix2

     COL1 COL2 COL3
ROW1    5   10   13
ROW2    9   11   14
ROW3    3   12   15

Accessing Array Elements

# Create two vectors of different lengths.
vector1 <- c(5,9,3)
vector2 <- c(10,11,12,13,14,15)
column.names <- c("COL1","COL2","COL3")
row.names <- c("ROW1","ROW2","ROW3")
matrix.names <- c("Matrix1","Matrix2")

# Take these vectors as input to the array.
result <- array(c(vector1,vector2),dim = c(3,3,2),dimnames = list(row.names,
   column.names, matrix.names))

# Print the third row of the second matrix of the array.
print(result[3,,2])

# Print the element in the 1st row and 3rd column of the 1st matrix.
print(result[1,3,1])

# Print the 2nd Matrix.
print(result[,,2])
When we execute the above code, it produces the following result −
COL1 COL2 COL3 
   3   12   15 
[1] 13
     COL1 COL2 COL3
ROW1    5   10   13
ROW2    9   11   14
ROW3    3   12   15

Manipulating Array Elements

As array is made up matrices in multiple dimensions, the operations on elements of array are carried out by accessing elements of the matrices.
# Create two vectors of different lengths.
vector1 <- c(5,9,3)
vector2 <- c(10,11,12,13,14,15)

# Take these vectors as input to the array.
array1 <- array(c(vector1,vector2),dim = c(3,3,2))

# Create two vectors of different lengths.
vector3 <- c(9,1,0)
vector4 <- c(6,0,11,3,14,1,2,6,9)
array2 <- array(c(vector1,vector2),dim = c(3,3,2))

# create matrices from these arrays.
matrix1 <- array1[,,2]
matrix2 <- array2[,,2]

# Add the matrices.
result <- matrix1+matrix2
print(result)
When we execute the above code, it produces the following result −
     [,1] [,2] [,3]
[1,]   10   20   26
[2,]   18   22   28
[3,]    6   24   30

Calculations Across Array Elements

We can do calculations across the elements in an array using the apply() function.

Syntax

apply(x, margin, fun)
Following is the description of the parameters used −
  • x is an array.
  • margin is the name of the data set used.
  • fun is the function to be applied across the elements of the array.

Example

We use the apply() function below to calculate the sum of the elements in the rows of an array across all the matrices.
# Create two vectors of different lengths.
vector1 <- c(5,9,3)
vector2 <- c(10,11,12,13,14,15)

# Take these vectors as input to the array.
new.array <- array(c(vector1,vector2),dim = c(3,3,2))
print(new.array)

# Use apply to calculate the sum of the rows across all the matrices.
result <- apply(new.array, c(1), sum)
print(result)
When we execute the above code, it produces the following result −
, , 1

     [,1] [,2] [,3]
[1,]    5   10   13
[2,]    9   11   14
[3,]    3   12   15

, , 2

     [,1] [,2] [,3]
[1,]    5   10   13
[2,]    9   11   14
[3,]    3   12   15

[1] 56 68 60


Table of contents: 
1. R - Overview
2. R - Environment Setup
3. R - Basic Syntax
4. R - Data Types
5. R - Variables
6. R - Operators
7. R - Decision Making
8. R - Loops
9. R - Functions
10. R - Strings
11. R - Vectors
12. R - Matrices
13. R - Arrays
14. R - Factors
15. R - Data Frames
16. R - Packages
17. R - Data Reshaping
18. R - CSV Files
19. R - Excel Files
20. R - Binary Files
21. R - XML Files
22. R - JSON Files
23. R - Web Data
24. R - Database
25. R - Pie Charts
26. R - Bar Charts
27. R - Boxplots
28. R - Histograms
29. R - Line Graphs
30. R - Scatterplots
31. R - Mean, Median and Mode
32. R - Linear Regression
33. R - Multiple Regression
34. R - Logistic Regression
35. R - Normal Distribution
36. R - Binomial Distribution
37. R - Poisson Regression
38. R - Analysis of Covariance
39. R - Time Series Analysis
40. R - Nonlinear Least Square
41. R - Decision Tree
42. R - Random Forest
43. R - Survival Analysis
44. R - Chi Square Tests

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