# R - Overview

The core of R is an interpreted computer language which allows branching and looping as well as modular programming using functions. R allows integration with the procedures written in the C, C++, .Net, Python or FORTRAN languages for efficiency.

R is freely available under the GNU General Public License, and pre-compiled binary versions are provided for various operating systems like Linux, Windows and Mac.

R is free software distributed under a GNU-style copy left, and an official part of the GNU project called

**GNU S**.

## Evolution of R

R was initially written by**Ross Ihaka**and

**Robert Gentleman**at the Department of Statistics of the University of Auckland in Auckland, New Zealand. R made its first appearance in 1993.

- A large group of individuals has contributed to R by sending code and bug reports.
- Since mid-1997 there has been a core group (the "R Core Team") who can modify the R source code archive.

## Features of R

As stated earlier, R is a programming language and software environment for statistical analysis, graphics representation and reporting. The following are the important features of R −- R is a well-developed, simple and effective programming language which includes conditionals, loops, user defined recursive functions and input and output facilities.
- R has an effective data handling and storage facility,
- R provides a suite of operators for calculations on arrays, lists, vectors and matrices.
- R provides a large, coherent and integrated collection of tools for data analysis.
- R provides graphical facilities for data analysis and display either directly at the computer or printing at the papers.

# R - Overview

The core of R is an interpreted computer language which allows branching and looping as well as modular programming using functions. R allows integration with the procedures written in the C, C++, .Net, Python or FORTRAN languages for efficiency.

R is freely available under the GNU General Public License, and pre-compiled binary versions are provided for various operating systems like Linux, Windows and Mac.

R is free software distributed under a GNU-style copy left, and an official part of the GNU project called

**GNU S**.

## Evolution of R

R was initially written by**Ross Ihaka**and

**Robert Gentleman**at the Department of Statistics of the University of Auckland in Auckland, New Zealand. R made its first appearance in 1993.

- A large group of individuals has contributed to R by sending code and bug reports.
- Since mid-1997 there has been a core group (the "R Core Team") who can modify the R source code archive.

## Features of R

As stated earlier, R is a programming language and software environment for statistical analysis, graphics representation and reporting. The following are the important features of R −- R is a well-developed, simple and effective programming language which includes conditionals, loops, user defined recursive functions and input and output facilities.
- R has an effective data handling and storage facility,
- R provides a suite of operators for calculations on arrays, lists, vectors and matrices.
- R provides a large, coherent and integrated collection of tools for data analysis.
- R provides graphical facilities for data analysis and display either directly at the computer or printing at the papers.

*Table of contents:*1. R - Overview

2. R - Environment Setup

3. R - Basic Syntax

4. R - Data Types

5. R - Variables

6. R - Operators

7. R - Decision Making

8. R - Loops

9. R - Functions

10. R - Strings

11. R - Vectors

12. R - Matrices

13. R - Arrays

14. R - Factors

15. R - Data Frames

16. R - Packages

17. R - Data Reshaping

18. R - CSV Files

19. R - Excel Files

20. R - Binary Files

21. R - XML Files

22. R - JSON Files

23. R - Web Data

24. R - Database

25. R - Pie Charts

26. R - Bar Charts

27. R - Boxplots

28. R - Histograms

29. R - Line Graphs

30. R - Scatterplots

31. R - Mean, Median and Mode

32. R - Linear Regression

33. R - Multiple Regression

34. R - Logistic Regression

35. R - Normal Distribution

36. R - Binomial Distribution

37. R - Poisson Regression

38. R - Analysis of Covariance

39. R - Time Series Analysis

40. R - Nonlinear Least Square

41. R - Decision Tree

42. R - Random Forest

43. R - Survival Analysis

44. R - Chi Square Tests