# R - Operators

## Types of Operators

We have the following types of operators in R programming −- Arithmetic Operators
- Relational Operators
- Logical Operators
- Assignment Operators
- Miscellaneous Operators

## Arithmetic Operators

Following table shows the arithmetic operators supported by R language. The operators act on each element of the vector.Operator | Description | Example |
---|---|---|

+ | Adds two vectors | v <- c( 2,5.5,6) t <- c(8, 3, 4) print(v+t)it produces the following result − [1] 10.0 8.5 10.0 |

− | Subtracts second vector from the first | v <- c( 2,5.5,6) t <- c(8, 3, 4) print(v-t)it produces the following result − [1] -6.0 2.5 2.0 |

* | Multiplies both vectors | v <- c( 2,5.5,6) t <- c(8, 3, 4) print(v*t)it produces the following result − [1] 16.0 16.5 24.0 |

/ | Divide the first vector with the second | v <- c( 2,5.5,6) t <- c(8, 3, 4) print(v/t)When we execute the above code, it produces the following result − [1] 0.250000 1.833333 1.500000 |

%% | Give the remainder of the first vector with the second | v <- c( 2,5.5,6) t <- c(8, 3, 4) print(v%%t)it produces the following result − [1] 2.0 2.5 2.0 |

%/% | The result of division of first vector with second (quotient) | v <- c( 2,5.5,6) t <- c(8, 3, 4) print(v%/%t)it produces the following result − [1] 0 1 1 |

^ | The first vector raised to the exponent of second vector | v <- c( 2,5.5,6) t <- c(8, 3, 4) print(v^t)it produces the following result − [1] 256.000 166.375 1296.000 |

## Relational Operators

Following table shows the relational operators supported by R language. Each element of the first vector is compared with the corresponding element of the second vector. The result of comparison is a Boolean value.Operator | Description | Example |
---|---|---|

> | Checks if each element of the first vector is greater than the corresponding element of the second vector. | v <- c(2,5.5,6,9) t <- c(8,2.5,14,9) print(v>t)it produces the following result − [1] FALSE TRUE FALSE FALSE |

< | Checks if each element of the first vector is less than the corresponding element of the second vector. | v <- c(2,5.5,6,9) t <- c(8,2.5,14,9) print(v < t)it produces the following result − [1] TRUE FALSE TRUE FALSE |

== | Checks if each element of the first vector is equal to the corresponding element of the second vector. | v <- c(2,5.5,6,9) t <- c(8,2.5,14,9) print(v == t)it produces the following result − [1] FALSE FALSE FALSE TRUE |

<= | Checks if each element of the first vector is less than or equal to the corresponding element of the second vector. | v <- c(2,5.5,6,9) t <- c(8,2.5,14,9) print(v<=t)it produces the following result − [1] TRUE FALSE TRUE TRUE |

>= | Checks if each element of the first vector is greater than or equal to the corresponding element of the second vector. | v <- c(2,5.5,6,9) t <- c(8,2.5,14,9) print(v>=t)it produces the following result − [1] FALSE TRUE FALSE TRUE |

!= | Checks if each element of the first vector is unequal to the corresponding element of the second vector. | v <- c(2,5.5,6,9) t <- c(8,2.5,14,9) print(v!=t)it produces the following result − [1] TRUE TRUE TRUE FALSE |

## Logical Operators

Following table shows the logical operators supported by R language. It is applicable only to vectors of type logical, numeric or complex. All numbers greater than 1 are considered as logical value TRUE.Each element of the first vector is compared with the corresponding element of the second vector. The result of comparison is a Boolean value.

Operator | Description | Example |
---|---|---|

& | It is called Element-wise Logical AND operator. It combines each element of the first vector with the corresponding element of the second vector and gives a output TRUE if both the elements are TRUE. | v <- c(3,1,TRUE,2+3i) t <- c(4,1,FALSE,2+3i) print(v&t)it produces the following result − [1] TRUE TRUE FALSE TRUE |

| | It is called Element-wise Logical OR operator. It combines each element of the first vector with the corresponding element of the second vector and gives a output TRUE if one the elements is TRUE. | v <- c(3,0,TRUE,2+2i) t <- c(4,0,FALSE,2+3i) print(v|t)it produces the following result − [1] TRUE FALSE TRUE TRUE |

! | It is called Logical NOT operator. Takes each element of the vector and gives the opposite logical value. | v <- c(3,0,TRUE,2+2i) print(!v)it produces the following result − [1] FALSE TRUE FALSE FALSE |

Operator | Description | Example |
---|---|---|

&& | Called Logical AND operator. Takes first element of both the vectors and gives the TRUE only if both are TRUE. | v <- c(3,0,TRUE,2+2i) t <- c(1,3,TRUE,2+3i) print(v&&t)it produces the following result − [1] TRUE |

|| | Called Logical OR operator. Takes first element of both the vectors and gives the TRUE if one of them is TRUE. | v <- c(0,0,TRUE,2+2i) t <- c(0,3,TRUE,2+3i) print(v||t)it produces the following result − [1] FALSE |

## Assignment Operators

These operators are used to assign values to vectors.Operator | Description | Example |
---|---|---|

<− or = or <<− | Called Left Assignment | v1 <- c(3,1,TRUE,2+3i) v2 <<- c(3,1,TRUE,2+3i) v3 = c(3,1,TRUE,2+3i) print(v1) print(v2) print(v3)it produces the following result − [1] 3+0i 1+0i 1+0i 2+3i [1] 3+0i 1+0i 1+0i 2+3i [1] 3+0i 1+0i 1+0i 2+3i |

-> or ->> | Called Right Assignment | c(3,1,TRUE,2+3i) -> v1 c(3,1,TRUE,2+3i) ->> v2 print(v1) print(v2)it produces the following result − [1] 3+0i 1+0i 1+0i 2+3i [1] 3+0i 1+0i 1+0i 2+3i |

## Miscellaneous Operators

These operators are used to for specific purpose and not general mathematical or logical computation.Operator | Description | Example |
---|---|---|

: | Colon operator. It creates the series of numbers in sequence for a vector. | v <- 2:8 print(v)it produces the following result − [1] 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 |

%in% | This operator is used to identify if an element belongs to a vector. | v1 <- 8 v2 <- 12 t <- 1:10 print(v1 %in% t) print(v2 %in% t)it produces the following result − [1] TRUE [1] FALSE |

%*% | This operator is used to multiply a matrix with its transpose. | M = matrix( c(2,6,5,1,10,4), nrow = 2,ncol = 3,byrow = TRUE) t = M %*% t(M) print(t)it produces the following result − [,1] [,2] [1,] 65 82 [2,] 82 117 |

*Table of contents:*1. R - Overview

2. R - Environment Setup

3. R - Basic Syntax

4. R - Data Types

5. R - Variables

6. R - Operators

7. R - Decision Making

8. R - Loops

9. R - Functions

10. R - Strings

11. R - Vectors

12. R - Matrices

13. R - Arrays

14. R - Factors

15. R - Data Frames

16. R - Packages

17. R - Data Reshaping

18. R - CSV Files

19. R - Excel Files

20. R - Binary Files

21. R - XML Files

22. R - JSON Files

23. R - Web Data

24. R - Database

25. R - Pie Charts

26. R - Bar Charts

27. R - Boxplots

28. R - Histograms

29. R - Line Graphs

30. R - Scatterplots

31. R - Mean, Median and Mode

32. R - Linear Regression

33. R - Multiple Regression

34. R - Logistic Regression

35. R - Normal Distribution

36. R - Binomial Distribution

37. R - Poisson Regression

38. R - Analysis of Covariance

39. R - Time Series Analysis

40. R - Nonlinear Least Square

41. R - Decision Tree

42. R - Random Forest

43. R - Survival Analysis

44. R - Chi Square Tests

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