# R - Random Forest

An error estimate is made for the cases which were not used while building the tree. That is called an

**OOB (Out-of-bag)**error estimate which is mentioned as a percentage.

The R package

**"randomForest"**is used to create random forests.

## Install R Package

Use the below command in R console to install the package. You also have to install the dependent packages if any.install.packages("randomForest)The package "randomForest" has the function

**randomForest()**which is used to create and analyze random forests.

### Syntax

The basic syntax for creating a random forest in R is −randomForest(formula, data)Following is the description of the parameters used −

**formula**is a formula describing the predictor and response variables.**data**is the name of the data set used.

### Input Data

We will use the R in-built data set named readingSkills to create a decision tree. It describes the score of someone's readingSkills if we know the variables "age","shoesize","score" and whether the person is a native speaker.Here is the sample data.

# Load the party package. It will automatically load other required packages. library(party) # Print some records from data set readingSkills. print(head(readingSkills))When we execute the above code, it produces the following result and chart −

nativeSpeaker age shoeSize score 1 yes 5 24.83189 32.29385 2 yes 6 25.95238 36.63105 3 no 11 30.42170 49.60593 4 yes 7 28.66450 40.28456 5 yes 11 31.88207 55.46085 6 yes 10 30.07843 52.83124 Loading required package: methods Loading required package: grid ............................... ...............................

### Example

We will use the**randomForest()**function to create the decision tree and see it's graph.

# Load the party package. It will automatically load other required packages. library(party) library(randomForest) # Create the forest. output.forest <- randomForest(nativeSpeaker ~ age + shoeSize + score, data = readingSkills) # View the forest results. print(output.forest) # Importance of each predictor. print(importance(fit,type = 2))When we execute the above code, it produces the following result −

Call: randomForest(formula = nativeSpeaker ~ age + shoeSize + score, data = readingSkills) Type of random forest: classification Number of trees: 500 No. of variables tried at each split: 1 OOB estimate of error rate: 1% Confusion matrix: no yes class.error no 99 1 0.01 yes 1 99 0.01 MeanDecreaseGini age 13.95406 shoeSize 18.91006 score 56.73051

### Conclusion

From the random forest shown above we can conclude that the shoesize and score are the important factors deciding if someone is a native speaker or not. Also the model has only 1% error which means we can predict with 99% accuracy.

*Table of contents:*1. R - Overview

2. R - Environment Setup

3. R - Basic Syntax

4. R - Data Types

5. R - Variables

6. R - Operators

7. R - Decision Making

8. R - Loops

9. R - Functions

10. R - Strings

11. R - Vectors

12. R - Matrices

13. R - Arrays

14. R - Factors

15. R - Data Frames

16. R - Packages

17. R - Data Reshaping

18. R - CSV Files

19. R - Excel Files

20. R - Binary Files

21. R - XML Files

22. R - JSON Files

23. R - Web Data

24. R - Database

25. R - Pie Charts

26. R - Bar Charts

27. R - Boxplots

28. R - Histograms

29. R - Line Graphs

30. R - Scatterplots

31. R - Mean, Median and Mode

32. R - Linear Regression

33. R - Multiple Regression

34. R - Logistic Regression

35. R - Normal Distribution

36. R - Binomial Distribution

37. R - Poisson Regression

38. R - Analysis of Covariance

39. R - Time Series Analysis

40. R - Nonlinear Least Square

41. R - Decision Tree

42. R - Random Forest

43. R - Survival Analysis

44. R - Chi Square Tests

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